Health

The most widespread dengue strain in the world is found in Brazil

Researchers have detected, for the first time, the cosmopolitan genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in Brazil. The lineage, which is the most widespread in the world and is present in Asia, the Middle East and Africa, had never been found in Brazilian territory. The genotype was identified in Aparecida de Goiânia (GO).

The information was released today (5) on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) portal. The detection of the dengue genotype was led by Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/Fiocruz) in partnership with the Central Public Health Laboratory of Goiás (Lacen-GO) and took place in February from a sample of a dengue case from the end of November of last year.

According to Fiocruz, for the researchers, the arrival of this strain in Brazil is a cause for concern, because there is a possibility that it will spread more efficiently than the Asian-American strain, also known as genotype 3 of serotype 2, which currently circulates in the country.

The strain, however, according to the team, is not responsible for the outbreak of dengue in Goiás and everything indicates that it was quickly identified, which can help control this strain.

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The finding represents the second official record of this genotype in the Americas, after an outbreak in Peru in 2019. Analyzes carried out in Brazil show that the strain found is similar to two microorganisms isolated during the outbreak recorded in the province of Madre de Dios, Peru. . However, it is still not possible to say that the cosmopolitan genotype was introduced in Brazil from the neighboring country. The suspicion is that it arrived from Asia, through intercontinental travel.

According to Fiocruz, the municipal and state health departments and the Ministry of Health were communicated. The researchers published an article on the preprint medRxiv.

The researchers point out that among the main actions to contain the spread of dengue is the elimination of stagnant water deposits, which can become mosquito breeding sites. Aedes aegyptiwhich transmits the disease.

In addition to the actions to combat dengue, the researchers emphasize the importance of intensifying the genomic surveillance of the disease to map the possible circulation of the cosmopolitan lineage and better understand the routes of introduction of the virus in the country.

Surveillance

The identification of the cosmopolitan genotype of the dengue virus was carried out through a real-time arbovirus genomic surveillance project, led by the Flavivirus Laboratory of the IOC/Fiocruz. In the initiative, the researchers move to the Central Public Health Laboratories of the states (Lacens) and perform the decoding of genomes with portable equipment for genetic sequencing. Since 2020, the work also includes the genomic surveillance of Sars-CoV-2, which causes covid-19, receiving the name of VigECoV-2.

The project has the collaboration of the Ministry of Health – through the General Coordination of Arboviruses (CGArb) and Public Health Laboratories (CGLab) -, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), both in the United States.

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