The five main diseases resulting from arterial hypertension – Health

Nausea and dizziness are some of the symptoms of people with hypertension. (photo: Freepik/Disclosure)

Arterial hypertension, popularly known as high blood pressure, is considered one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular, renal and even neurological diseases.

The blood circulation has a normal pressure of 120 x 80 mmHg. When this pressure increases, reaching an index greater than or equal to 140 x 90 mmHg, for a long time, it is characterized as hypertension.

Symptoms tend to appear only in the most advanced stages, such as nausea, dizziness, excessive tiredness, blurred vision, difficulty breathing or chest pain and, if not treated properly, can progress to other diseases.

Doctors specialists from Doctoralia – the world’s largest health platform, present the main problems resulting from high blood pressure.


According to neurologist Carlos Henrique Carneiro, hypertension can contribute to several types of stroke. With the increase in pressure and the inability to dilate the arteries of the head, the risk of clogs increases. The consequence can be blockage or rupture of blood vessels in the brain.

Also read: Colder seasons of the year can increase the risk of stroke

kidney failure

Arterial hypertension can affect the renal arteries and cause the kidneys to progressively lose function, leading to renal failure. According to nephrologist Carlos Eji Koga, in the initial stage, renal failure does not usually show signs: “what we call a silent disease. In more advanced cases, the symptoms are related to decreased urine volume, nausea and vomiting, alteration of breath , foam in the urine and fluid retention”.

Patients with poorly controlled hypertension, with risk factors, heart problems, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic diseases, such as kidney stones, are more prone to renal failure.

heart attack

Arterial hypertension is one of the biggest risk factors for the chronic inflammatory process of the artery walls with accumulation of cholesterol, platelets, fibrins, calcium and cellular debris that leads to the formation of hardened plaques and reduces elasticity. Consequently, the blood vessels are obstructed and can lead to a heart attack.

Therefore, patients with risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, genetic predisposition and poorly controlled arterial hypertension should pay attention to the signs. “Infarction usually presents with chest pain in tightness or pressure that worsens with exertion and improves at rest, and may also be associated with progressive shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, cold sweat” warns cardiologist Brbara Pires.


Another cardiovascular disease that can result from hypertension is arrhythmia. The main symptoms are palpitation, chest pain, shortness of breath, tiredness, dizziness and fainting. The treatment of the arrhythmia will depend on the symptoms, the severity and the risks of complicating the arrhythmia.

Anyone, regardless of age and sex, can experience cardiac arrhythmia. However, “most of the occurrences are related to those who have previous heart diseases and who have a history of these diseases in the family, as is the case of people with hypertension”, emphasizes the specialist Brbara.

heart failure

According to the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, hypertension and blockage of the coronary arteries, often associated with arterial hypertension, are responsible for more than half of the cases of heart failure. “When arterial hypertension is controlled, in the long term, high pressure overloads the heart muscle, leaving it increasingly weak and having difficulty pumping blood in adequate amounts to meet the body’s needs”, concludes Pires.

The main symptom of heart failure is tiredness when performing usual efforts. In addition, you may also experience swelling in the legs, pain or discomfort in the chest, difficulty sleeping with the head down, night waking up due to shortness of breath.

Although there is no cure, the chances of controlling hypertension are very high. Therefore, it is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle, with a balanced diet and physical activity. Medical follow-up is also important to check if there is a need for drug treatment.

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