THE world Cup highlighted the mobilization of peoples for a cause. At Tunisia beat France 1-0, last Wednesday (30), a man wrapped in a Palestinian flag invaded the pitch. In the stands of Qatar, groups of supporters from other countries have been fighting for Palestinian recognition as a nation.
According to “GE”, supporters from Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Syria, Jordan and Algeria have also carried Palestinian flags. In addition, there are scarves and flags that bring the nation’s colors and stamp the phrase “Free Palestine” (“Free Palestine”).
Professor of the Department of International Relations at Uerj, Mauricio Santoro detailed.
– The Palestinian cause is very popular in all Arab countries, due to the cultural proximity and the desire of these peoples to recover Jerusalem, which is also a holy city for Muslims. This cause is also strong in other parts of the world, such as in North Africa, Asia and, in the case of Latin America, it is mainly among leftist groups. But it is particularly intense among the Arabs – he told the THROW!🇧🇷
According to Agence France Presse, the government of Israel recommended not taking the country’s flag to Qatar. Jewish or Israeli symbols are also not recommended by the government. As much as FIFA plans, there are still scars from this meeting between nations in the stands.
SHARING DOESN’T LEAVE THE PAPER
For centuries, the State of Palestine was under the power of empires that had Muslim origins. The last of these was the Ottoman Empire, which went into decline with the end of the First World War.
Jewish migration began in the 19th century and intensified during World War I. At the time, Palestine was under the control of another country: England.
However, during the Second World War, the flow increased intensely, in the face of millions of Jews fleeing the persecution of the Nazis. The English took a stronger decision.
– During World War II, the British proposed dividing Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state. This suggestion, although approved by the UN (on November 29, 1947, at the General Assembly of the United Nations), was never implemented – said Professor Mauricio Santoro.
ISRAEL’S INDEPENDENCE AND CONFLICT SUCCESS
Based on the decision taken the previous year at the UN, Israel declared its independence.
– Israel came into existence as an independent state in 1948. Since then, its borders have been defined by a mixture of battles and complex diplomatic negotiations – recalled Maurício Santoro.
The day after independence, the First Arab-Israeli War began. Soldiers from Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Transjordan and Iraq joined the Palestinians and launched an offensive into Israeli territory. However, the Israelis managed to impose themselves and forced thousands of Palestinians to leave their homes.
There were divergences regarding the version about the departure of the inhabitants (about 700,000 Palestinians, according to the UN). People living in Palestine claimed that they were expelled and later prevented from returning to where they lived. Israel, on the other hand, ruled out that it had expelled Palestinians and attributed the excesses to isolated cases and initiatives by state agents or paramilitaries.
Those born in Palestine defined this day as “Al-Nakba” (“catastrophe”), for all the consequences it caused in the residents of the region. The war came to an end in 1949, with the Israelis expanding their territory. Jerusalem was divided between Israel and the West Bank.
WAR OF THE SIX DAYS AND OF MANY CONSEQUENCES
Subsequently, there was a new conflict involving Israelis and Palestinians. In 1959, there was the creation of the Fatah movement, by the institution of the Palestinian State. Five years later, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) emerged, which originally demanded the creation of Palestine and did not accept the solution of a division of territory with Israel.
The fear of attack by opponents led the Israelis to dominate territories in a war that lasted a short time.
– In 1967, in the Six-Day War, Israel conquered Jerusalem and a series of other territories, such as the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights – highlighted professor Maurício Santoro.
Months after the end of the war, the Resolution of Khartoum (capital of Sudan) established some points. One of them was the “Three No Speech”: “peace will not be declared to Israel, the state of Israel will not be recognized, there will be no negotiations with Israel”.
The fight for the rights of the Palestinian people was on the agenda at the meeting that had representatives from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait and Sudan. Other aspects taken into account were the boycott of Arab oil that took place during the Six Day War, the end of the Civil War in Northern Yemen, and economic assistance to Jordan and Egypt.
In 1973, there was a response by Syrian and Egyptian armies against the Israelis in the Yom Kippur War. The conflict lasted about 20 days and the result was the Oil Crisis of that year. There was a boycott by Arab oil-producing countries and members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to countries that supported Israel. United States, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom and Netherlands were some of those punished. Each barrel rose 400%.
– It is not surprising that countries that make up the Middle East beyond, even, the Arab territory have the Palestinian cause as a central policy. It’s a way of protesting what they see as Israel’s imperialist abuses. Especially in the occupied territories. This imperialism is seen indirectly from the United States – said Paulo Velasco, professor of International Relations at Uerj.
‘INTIFADA’ AND PEACE ATTEMPT
The irritation of Palestinians became even clearer after 1987. There was the first intifada, a movement armed with sticks and stones in reaction to Israeli policy. At the same time, a more radical wing emerged among the Palestinians: Hamas.
– The objective of the main political groups in Palestine is to consolidate its position as an independent state, although there are disagreements among them about what the nature of that state should be, especially the role of religion in it. There are groups that want it to be dominant, such as Hamas and others that are more flexible in this respect, in the case of Fatah. And, of course, the differences on how to deal with Israel – explained Maurício Santoro, highlighting:
– Fatah is the group that dominates Palestine, especially in the West Bank, and basically agreed to negotiate with Israel. Hamas and similar groups, such as Islamic Jihad, are stronger in Gaza and have a policy of confrontation with the Israelis, of trying to beat them by force, with attacks and attacks – he added.
There was an attempt at a greater dialogue with the Oslo Accords. The professor of the Department of International Relations at Uerj, Maurício Santoro, pointed out that the situation is still quite delicate.
– A State of Palestine was finally created, with territories in the West Bank and Gaza, but there is no recognition of East Jerusalem. The effective control of these regions, however, is fragile and complicated, it depends on many negotiations-he said.
The path to an agreement was also not well-regarded in Israel at the time.
– The peace agreements with the Palestinians are very controversial in Israel. The prime minister who signed them, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated by a fanatic opposed to the negotiations. Many Israelis believe that the return of territories in the West Bank and Gaza would not have resulted in peace and increased security, but would have worsened the situation in the country – and he stressed:
– Israel is a country that has become more conservative and nationalist in recent years, with voters more critical of peace agreements with the Palestinians. And the big issues of Jerusalem and the return of refugees remain pending – he added.
In 2000, there was a new intifada marked by violence. The region continues to alternate moments of ceasefire with clashes. The previous prime minister of Israel, Yair Lapid, even considered in a meeting at the UN that Israelis and Palestine had the right to their respective states. But the anticipation was short-lived.
Benjamin Netanyahu won the majority of votes and will resume as prime minister. His election indicates the end of a solution to the imbroglio.
As much as the stalemate over its territory continues to cause so many controversies and mobilizations, Palestine is already on the pitch. The team has participated in World Cup qualifiers since 2002.
It has not yet had significant campaigns in the competition dispute. In its most recent participation, it reached the second phase, but was eliminated in Group D of the Asian Qualifiers. He also competed in the Arab Cup. The mystery will be defining the best way to overcome so many obstacles off the pitch.
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