This painful, often underestimated condition comes in a variety of forms, so understanding its various types, causes, and treatment options is critical to improving the quality of life of patients.
Migraine is not just a severe headache: it is a complex neurological disorder that is often accompanied by a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and in some cases a visual aura.
These auras appear as temporary visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or blind spots, often preceding a migraine headache with aura.
There are several types of migraine, the most common being with and without aura. Migraine without aura is characterized by an intense, throbbing headache that can last for hours or even days; it is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and aversion to light and sound.
On the other hand, migraine with aura is accompanied by transient neurological symptoms such as those mentioned above. These symptoms may occur before or during the headache, and the affected person may experience visual, sensory, or speech changes.
It just doesn’t go away
Another type of migraine is chronic, which is defined as a headache that occurs 15 days or more per month for at least three months. This type can be especially debilitating and difficult to treat as the patient faces ongoing or recurring suffering.
Migraine can also be classified according to its triggers. Some people experience them from certain foods, such as chocolate or cheese, while others may be affected by environmental factors, such as weather changes or exposure to bright lights. Identifying personal triggers is critical to managing this condition.
As for the causes of migraine, experts still do not fully understand them. However, a combination of genetic and environmental factors is believed to play a role.
Fluctuations in the levels of certain brain chemicals, such as serotonin, have also been linked to migraines.
Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications, both preventative and to relieve acute pain, are often part of the treatment plan.
In addition, complementary therapies such as acupuncture, physical therapy, and biofeedback have been shown to be beneficial for many migraine sufferers.
Avoiding known triggers, maintaining a regular sleep pattern, and applying stress management techniques can help prevent migraines.
types of migraine
Lack of sleep
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 15% of the world’s population suffers from migraine.
This condition represents a significant economic cost due to lost work days and doctor visits, estimated at billions of dollars annually.
Migraine can reduce the quality of life of those who suffer from it, affecting their emotional and social well-being.
They are more common in women than men, at a ratio of about three to one.
The predisposition to migraine has a genetic component, and people with a family history are more likely to suffer from it.
Migraine can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and neurological disorders.
Frequent self-medication with painkillers can aggravate migraines and lead to a cycle of chronic pain.
Scientists continue to study the exact causes of migraines and develop more effective treatments.
World Health Organization (WHO).
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Ninds).
American Migration Fund.
Migration Research Foundation.