what is it, types and other common questions

Hormones are chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands that enter the tissues and organs through the blood, causing various changes in the body, for example, stimulating growth and development or mood.

The main glands of the endocrine system include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, pineal and thyroid glands, sex glands. Learn what the endocrine system is and how it works.

In cases where there are symptoms that indicate hormonal changes, a general practitioner or specialist may order blood, urine, or saliva tests to quantify the amount of a particular hormone.

Hormone-secreting endocrine glands

Hormone-secreting endocrine glands

Major hormones in the body

The table below shows the main hormones in the body and the endocrine glands in which they are produced:

Altering these hormones can cause various diseases, depending on which one is affected, such as diabetes, osteoporosis, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism.

types of hormones

There are 3 types of hormones including:

  • Steroid hormones: They are made up of fat, mostly cholesterol, as is the case with progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone;
  • Peptide hormones: They are composed of large proteins such as, for example, growth hormone (somatotropin), insulin and ghrelin;
  • Hormones derived from amino acids: These are smaller molecules made up of amino acids, such as thyroid hormones, adrenaline, and melatonin.

His duties

Hormones are involved in various processes in the body, as they stimulate growth and development, improve mood and well-being, regulate sleep and appetite.

In addition, they also maintain the body’s homeostasis by internally balancing blood pressure, body temperature, fluids, and electrolytes. Hormones are also involved in reproduction and sexual function.

Hormones work as messengers, that is, they carry a message to a specific organ or tissue, causing an action in the place where the message was delivered. This happens, for example, when you eat a piece of bread and the level of sugar (glucose) in your blood rises, which causes the pancreas to produce insulin so that the cells of the body allow glucose to enter for energy or to be stored as reserves. thick.

Other Common Questions

Some common questions about hormones:

1. What are female hormones?

The female hormones are estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

Progesterone is a hormone that regulates a woman’s menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus to receive a fertilized egg by preventing it from being expelled from the body, which is very important during pregnancy. This hormone is stimulated by luteinizing hormone.

On the other hand, estrogen is a hormone that plays an important role during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause as it is stimulated by FSH. Learn about the functions of female hormones.

2. What are male hormones?

The main male hormone is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male sex organs and for characteristics such as beard growth, deepening of the voice, and masculine physique. See what testosterone is for.

3. What are happiness hormones?

Happiness hormones are:

  • oxytocin: It is a hormone produced in the brain that plays an important role during childbirth and breastfeeding. It is also known as the love hormone due to its role in improving mood, social interaction, reducing anxiety, and strengthening bonds between couples or between mother and child;
  • dopamine: it is a hormone responsible for provoking a feeling of pleasure, as well as increasing motivation;
  • Serotonin: it is a hormone that acts in the brain to help regulate anxiety, increase happiness levels, and improve mood;
  • endorphins: This is a group of hormones produced in the pituitary gland that, when released into the bloodstream, act to stimulate feelings of pleasure, well-being, motivation, and happiness.

A decrease in these hormones in the body has been associated with an increased risk of depression or anxiety.

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